Volume 7 - Issue 3

September 2020

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Investigating the Factors Related to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on Undergraduate Students’ Interests in Coursework

Abdi Güngör Mehmet Akif Karaman Halil İbrahim Sarı Tuğba Seda Çolak
Pages: 1-13

Today the world is suffering from coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic illness, and people all around the world stay at home due to its rapid spread. People including students gather information and government instructions through TVs, social media and others around them. Since the classes were canceled in many countries, the novel coronavirus affects students’ interest in coursework. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TV news, social media and communication with people on interest in coursework, and mediating roles of fear of contamination, depression, and anxiety on these effects. A path analysis was carried out with the data collected from 773 college students. The results showed that interest in coursework was most strongly affected by communication with people. This was due to its direct and indirect effects. Social media and TV News did not directly affect interest in coursework, but indirectly affected. The study also found that among the three mediator variables, the mediator roles of anxiety was bigger than the others. Understanding the findings of this research has become very important to us, especially at a time when face-to-face lessons have been canceled all over the world and transitioned to online education. Specific recommendations for practitioners and limitations for future research were also provided in the study.

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Investigation of Smartphone Addiction Levels Among University Students

Sinan Kaya Mevlüt Kaya
Pages: 14-25

The purpose of this study is to examine the smartphone addiction levels among university students. For this purpose, first of all, students' addiction levels were determined, and then it was examined whether these levels differed according to the gender of the students, the purpose of using the internet on the smartphone, and the usage times of smartphones. The causal comparison method was used in the research as a quantitative research method and the sampling of the research consisted of 435 students studying in the Faculty of Theology at Ondokuz Mayıs University and who were determined by the accessible sampling method. In order to determine the smartphone addiction levels of university students, the data was obtained with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. Descriptive statistics, the independent samples t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze the obtained data. The results of the research showed that students studying in the Faculty of Theology had low levels of smartphone addiction, male students had higher levels of smartphone addiction compared to female students, the use of social media via smartphones increased the risk of addiction, and that students with a higher average daily smartphone usage also had higher levels of addiction.

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Adaptation of the intrinsic motivation inventory to Turkish

İbrahim Duman Mehmet Barış Horzum Christoph Randler
Pages: 26-33

Students' intrinsic motivation has a crucial role in their learning. In this context, the intrinsic motivations of students should be taken into consideration in educational activities. In this contribution, the scale developed by Wilde et al. (2009) was adapted to Turkish Culture. This is an intrinsic motivation scale, which is an adapted, time-economic version of the “Intrinsic Motivation Inventory” by Deci and Ryan. The short scale has four factors namely interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived choice and pressure/tension with three items each. Data were collected from 230 high school students in order to analyze the scale's factorial and construct validity. The linguistic equivalence step was carried out by consulting expert opinion because the scale measures intrinsic motivation and because intrinsic motivation differs from one context to another. Confirmatory factor analysis results of the scale, the results for construct validity and the findings obtained for the reliability of the scale showed that the Turkish adaptation is a good and time-saving assessment tool for intrinsic measuring motivation during lessons.

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Relationship Between Self-Control and Continuous Partial Attention: Case of Prospective Teachers

Mehmet Fırat Ulaş İlic
Pages: 34-45

Relationship between CPA and self-controls has been analyzed in this study. This correlation study conducted with 55 prospective teachers, CPA Survey and BSCS have been used. Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and descriptive statistics used in data analysis. To the results, it was determined that the self-control abilities of prospective teachers were high whereas CPA levels were low. It was found that the CPA levels of the prospective teachers decreased, and self-control abilities increased as technology use increased. No significant relationship was found between CPA and self-control as a result of Pearson correlation.

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Analysis of Motivational Action Conflict Frequency of Turkish High School Students in Terms of Value Orientation

Hüseyin Çalışkan Çağla Karademir Alpay Aksin
Pages: 46-57

This study was designed to investigate to association between motivational action conflict frequency and value orientation as well as sociodemographic correlates of value orientation among Turkish high school students. Participants consisted of 846 students in different high schools from Marmara region of Turkey and completed Motivational Action Conflict Frequency Survey and Value Orientation Scale. Results of this study suggested that students have average well-being value orientation and low achievement value orientation. There was no significant association between achievement and well-being value orientation and school-leisure time conflict; however, a weak and positive significant relationship exist between achievement value orientation and school time-school time conflict and leisure time-leisure time conflict, and there was a negative low-level significant relationship between well-being value orientation and school time-school time conflict and leisure time-leisure time conflict. The students’ achievement and well-being value orientation were significantly different based on gender and daily studying times. Well-being value orientation associated with high school type, but no significant difference found in achievement value orientation. Lastly, there was no significant difference in value orientation in terms of grade level. The results of this study may also help to understand the correlates of value orientation and motivational conflict frequency in Turkish literature where a very limited number of studies have been conducted.

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The Effect of Counselling on Anxiety Level from the Perspective of Ecological Systems Theory: A Quasi-experimental Pre-test - Post-test Control Group Study

Ahmet Tanhan Mehmet Akif Karaman Ahmet Nalbant
Pages: 58-69

In this study, we aimed to examine how counseling service provided to college students, through a contextual clinical counseling model, affects the anxiety level of college students at a university in the east of Turkey. We followed a quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest and with control group design method. The experimental group comprised 205 and the control group comprised 75 college students. Seven supervisors with PhD degree in counseling and counselor education provided weekly supervision to 120 counselors-in-training who provided individual counseling services to the participants. Each client in the experimental group received in average six sessions, each for 45-55 minutes. We have used an adapted version of Beck Anxiety Inventory for Turkey to examine the clients’ anxiety levels. Throughout the counseling process, we have collaborated with the psychiatry department at the university when it was necessary. Additionally, in order to conduct the complex quasi-experimental study in a smooth process, we developed and utilized the contextual clinical counseling model, as such models are utilized in some of the best counseling departments in the USA. The model facilitated to conduct the complex and dynamic research and providing the services with limited resources. That means optimized the resources through the model and got significant results. As a result, receiving counseling service seems significantly decreasing anxiety level for this sample. The current study meets some important gaps in mental health. We disccussed the findings from an ecological systems theory perspective and suggested some implications in mental health.

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Identity Centrality and Well-Being in Lesbian and Bisexual Women College Students

Christine M. Rosner Trey W. Armstrong Michaela V. Walsh Linda G. Castillo
Pages: 70-80

Identity centrality and well-being may hold relevance to lesbian and bisexual women college students as they navigate emerging adulthood, develop their identities, and work towards greater authenticity and self-acceptance. This study sought to investigate if identity centrality clusters as identified by Meca and colleagues (2015) could be replicated in a sample of lesbian and bisexual identified college students. Drawing upon extant literature, we hypothesized that lesbian and bisexual women would have profiles of identity centrality that emphasize different aspects of identity and that balanced identity centrality profiles would be associated with higher eudaimonic well-being. Six profiles (or clusters) of identity centrality were found for each group; obtained clusters partially replicated clusters found in Meca et al. (2015). Interestingly, obtained profiles differed between the group of lesbian and the group of bisexual-identified women. Departing from the work of Meca et al. (2015), identity centrality profiles which demonstrated high centrality across all components (engaged/public) and those that deemphasized collective identity (low collective) profiles were associated with higher eudaimonic well-being among both participant groups.

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The relationship between the quality of school life perceptions of the secondary school students and their lifelong learning tendencies

Pages: 81-88

The aim of this study is to examine the perceptions of the quality of school life and lifelong learning tendencies of secondary school students in terms of gender, grade level and school type variables. The population of the research is the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth graders studying at secondary schools in Hendek district of Sakarya province in 2017-2018 academic year. In this context, the sample of the study consists of a total of 640 students, 287 boys and 353 girls studying at 9 different schools in the same district. 35-item Quality of School Life Scale developed by Sarı (2007) was used to measure the quality of school life of the participants, and 17-item Lifelong Learning Tendencies Scale developed by Gür-Erdoğan and Arsal (2016) was used to measure the lifelong learning levels in the study which was conducted in the relational screening model. The research found a moderate positive and significant relationship between the quality of school life and lifelong learning.

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The Predictor Role of the Search for Meaning in Life in the Determination of High School Students’ Lifelong Learning Tendencies

Mustafa Kılınç Kıvanç Uzun
Pages: 89-100

The current study aims to determine the extent to which high school students’ lifelong learning tendencies are predicted by their search for meaning in life. The study was conducted on a total of 352 senior high school students (165 females, 187 males) attending high schools located in the Bodrum District of the city of Muğla. The data of the study was collected by using a personal information form developed by the researchers, The Lifelong Learning Tendencies Scale developed by Coşkun (2009) and the sub-dimension of the search for meaning in life in the Meaning in Life Scale High School Form adapted to Turkish by Demirbaş-Çelik and İşmen-Gazioğlu (2015). In the analysis of the collected data, Pearson correlation coefficient and simple linear regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between the variables and in relation to the differences, independent samples t-test and one-way variance analysis were employed. All the analyses were conducted in SPSS 20.0 program package. At the end of the study, it was found that the high school students’ lifelong learning tendencies are positively and significantly predicted by their search for meaning in life. Moreover, the high school students’ lifelong learning tendencies were found to be varying significantly depending on gender and the type of the school attended. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the literature.

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Selman ABLAK
Pages: 101-110

Although the refugee problem has been on the agenda of the world for centuries, it has increased its influence gradually due to the conflicts and wars in the Middle East especially after the 2000s. In this sense, after the civil war that erupted in Syria in 2011, there has been an influx of refugees into Turkey, and today millions of Syrians are forced to emigrate to Turkey. Most of the refugees coming through migration are under the age of 18, defined as "school age". Therefore, one of basic problems faced by the school-age refugees, who had to come to Turkey from Syria, is access to education. Thanks to immediate actualization of the efforts of the Republic of Turkey, immigrant students were placed in public schools with an aim to achieve necessary orientation. The aim of this research is to determine the attitudes of secondary school students towards refugee students. The study was attended by 5, 6, 7 and 8th grade students studying in schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education in Keçiören district of Ankara, in the 2018-2019 academic year. In the research, quantitative research method was used to collect data. “Attitude Scale towards Refugee Students” developed by Kılcan, Çepni and Kılınç (2017) was used as data collection tool. Within the framework of the purpose of the research, SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) program was used for the necessary statistical analyses of the collected data regarding students’ responds to the attitude scale. It was revealed that the attitudes of the participants towards refugee students showed a significant difference according to the variables of gender, grade, having a refugee neighbor and refugee friends. Based on these results, it is recommended to provide awareness training for students studying in the same environment with refugee students to prevent secondary school students from developing negative attitudes towards refugees. Based on the positive attitude of secondary school students who have both a refugee neighbor and a refugee friend, it is suggested that different studies, especially cultural adaptation trainings, should be conducted for the social acceptance of Syrians who are in a sense guests in our country due to immigration.

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Science Teachers’ Opinion and Experiences on 5th Grade Students’ After the 4+4+4 Education System

Canan Laçin Şimşek Aysun Öztuna Kaplan
Pages: 111-125

With the introduction of the 4+4+4 education system in 2012, the school starting age has been reduced to 60 months and branch teachers started to attend classes starting from 5th grade. Therefore, in the current study, there are two aims. Firstly it is aimed to determine the opinions and experiences of science teachers having started to teach the 5th graders for the first time in the new education system. Secondly, it is aimed to determine the opinions and experiences of science teachers having started to teach the 5th grader students (including 9 years old) who started school in the 2012-2013 academic year and ranked 5th in 2016-2017. The current research study is a phenomenological study conducted on 22 teachers who taught to 5th graders in the 2016-2017 academic year and also had taught to 5th graders in the previous academic year. The data of the study were collected through semi-structured interviews. As a result of the study, it was determined that science teachers confront a number of difficulties in terms of teaching to 5th graders, and these difficulties increase with the number of students who started to school at an early age in a classroom. The teachers noted that students who start school at an early age are not ready to school both from affective and cognitive aspects. They also stated that they are required to deliver courses by making more activities and concretizing the subjects. As the teachers participating in the study also highlighted, regulating the school starting age to 72 months is important and necessary for both primary and middle school levels.

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Teacher Candidates Achievements from The ADHD Vocational Elective Course

Pages: 126-142

ADHD- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood. The number of children with ADHD increases every year. Most of the teachers working in schools and kindergartens are not educated enough to use appropriate methods while working with these students. That is the reason why some Universities included the ADHD as vocational elective course in their programs. The aim of this research is to ensure and increase the knowledge and information’s of teacher’s candidates about ADHD before their work with children. In this research we decided to analyze the effects of the ADHD as vocational elective course for the students from Canakkale 18 Mart University in Turkey. Questionnaire before and after taking the course was applied on students who attended it, in a period of three months. The group consisted 20 females, from two different departments at the Faculty of Education: Pre-school Teachers and Primary School Teachers. The implemented pre and post questionnaire contained four questions. The data were analyzed using the content analysis method and the questions were analyzed with the MAXQDA Analytics Pro 2020 program. Codes and sub-codes were created with purpose to analyze and interpret the answers given to each question through content analysis. In the research, it was seen that the conceptual learning about ADHD was increased and the teacher candidates learned what should be done about children with ADHD. Within the framework of the research results, it is recommended to make observations during the diagnosis process of the ADHD student, and to conduct practical studies for functional measures for ADHD in the classroom.

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Social Media Addiction and Academic Adjustment: The Mediating or Moderating Effect of Grit Personality

poh chua siah YiRong Brian Siew Zhi Yang Sai
Pages: 143-151

The high attrition rate among Malaysian tertiary students have drawn the attention of educators and policy makers, and poor academic adjustment is regarded as one of the factors. Therefore, it is important to find out factors that are relevant to their poor academic adjustment so that intervention programs can be designed to improve their adjustment. Social media addiction and the grit personality have found to be significant factors that affect academic performance. However, it is not clear how the three variables interact with each other. Accordingly, this study adopts the essentialist and contextual perspectives to examine the relationships among these three variables, especially whether grit is a mediator or moderate for the relationship. 210 undergraduates were recruited by using the purposive sampling method and were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyze the data. The results showed that social media addiction is negatively associated with grit personality and academic adjustment, and grit is positively associated with academic adjustment. In addition, grit is a statistical mediator rather than a statistical moderator for the effect of social media addiction on academic lifestyle. The findings support the contextual perspective on personality that grit personality is a state that can be changed by certain social context. The findings reveal the importance of providing a positive social context for tertiary students who are undergoing a transition period, so that their grit personality can be developed and thus enhance their academic adjustment.

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Investigating the Backwash Effect of Higher Education Exam (YGS) on University Students’ Attitudes

Murat Polat
Pages: 152-163

The application of high-stakes tests to choose students for higher education in Turkey has been considered as a reliable and effective way of assessment for so long. However, the application of a multiple-choice test in testing various skills could bring a number of side-effects with itself. This study aimed to investigate the backwash effect of the university exam on university students’ attitudes. To be able to collect data from participants, it was first aimed to develop an attitude scale to examine the washback effect of Higher Education Exam (YGS). Considering the views of 5 academicians from educational sciences, ELT and testing disciplines, a preliminary version of the washback scale was developed. Next, the new scale was piloted in order to do its exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Third, the scale’s internal reliability was measured and the scale which had 3 factors and 13 items was proven to be a valid and reliable tool to collect data including university students’ views towards the washback effect of the university exam on their attitudes. Data of this study were collected from 5 state universities with the contribution of 1617 students from different grades and disciplines. The results showed that YGS had negative washback effects on university students in terms of test anxiety and study habits but considering its impact on students’ time management skills, YGS was reported to have a positive impact on participants.

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A Review On Solution Focused Brief Therapy Studies In Turkey

Okan Bilgin
Pages: 164-177

The aim of this study is to examine experimental studies conducted with solution focused brief therapy psychological counselling in Turkey. In this study in which descriptive method was used, the data were analysed with document analysis. In this respect, a total of 26 studies, 24 graduate theses and 2 articles, which were conducted experimentally with solution focused counselling approach, were analysed. According to the results of the study, it was found that there was an increase in studies conducted with this approach in recent years, the majority of the studies were conducted in the fields of education and nursing, and the sample groups of the study were mostly secondary school, high school and university students. It was found that mostly group counselling method and semi-experimental pattern were used in studies, a great majority of the studies were conducted with 6 sessions, all of the studies except one included control group, 3 of the studies included placebo group and follow-up test was conducted in 14 of the studies. It was found that the studies were applied on very different problem areas, mainly undesired behaviours and that 4 of the studies met all the criteria determined for solution focused approach. When the studies conducted were examined, it was found that there were no studies in which solution focused approach was compared with another psychotherapy approach. As a result of the study, it was found that in all studies except one, solution focused counselling had a significant effect on the experimental group.

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Informative Parent Training on Parental Advocacy and Legal Rights for Families with Children with Special Educational Needs

Mahmut Çitil
Pages: 178-193

This study aims to illustrate the effectiveness of the programme of informative parent training which is about the rights of families of children with special educational needs (SEN), and which is presented via the direct instruction method. The research was designed in a semi-experimental model consisting of a single group pre-test and post-test design. The study group consists of 11 mothers and four fathers of children with SEN who continued to a private special education and rehabilitation centre in Ankara. Interview forms and the "Legal Rights Information Test" were used to collect data for this research. The pre-test and post-test scores obtained within the scope of the research were analysed in the SPSS software suite, and social validity data were subject to content analysis and descriptive analysis. The dependent variable of the study, which is the level of knowledge about the legal rights of families of children with SEN, was found to have increased following the informative parent training provided for families (t = -8.573, p < .001). The pre-test average score (17.73) of The Legal Rights Knowledge Test of families was lower than the post-tests averages (31.47), the difference being statistically significant. Most of the families participating in the research argued that the content, process, and materials of the training program were beneficial to them and suggested similar training for other families.

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Investigation of Intergenerational Romantic Relationship Perception

Eyüp Çelik Fatma Bingül Mehmet Kaya
Pages: 194-208

The aim of this research is to examine the perception of intergenerational romantic relationship. In this study, phenomenology method, which is one of the qualitative research methods, has been used. The sample of the study consists of 113 participants, 52 of whom are male and 61 are female. While 8 male, 4 female participants fill in the form face to face, 44 male, 57 female participant responses the answers online. Participants have been completed the answers to the research questions online. In the data analysis, inductive content analysis has been used. In the analysis of the research findings, it has been concluded that there are differences in the perception of the X, Y and Z generation participants in romantic relations by taking into account the gender and marital status variables.

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Pre-service Mathematics Teachers Created Animated Stories to Improve their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Nilgun Gunbas
Pages: 209-222

In an attempt to improve pre-service mathematics teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), pre-service teachers (N=52) were trained in creating technology-based mathematics teaching materials. Pre-service mathematics teachers learned visual programming to create computer-based animated stories in this study. They worked in pairs and created animated stories, which are intended to improve fourth grade students’ mathematics word problem solving. Six of these pre-service teachers were willingly participated in this study and observed students completing two animated stories in actual classroom environments. The purpose was to investigate the value of their work and provide advice with regard to improve their TPACK. The pre-service teachers (n=6) were interviewed within a qualitative research framework. This study reveals the pre-service teachers´ opinions and beliefs regarding various aspects of the projects, such as students´ interest, students´ performance, as well as the teachers´ professional, pedagogical and individual improvement. The pre-service teachers are convinced that teaching with the use of technology support students’ learning and that technology use in the classrooms is valuable. As a result, it can be confirmed that the process helped them improve their TPACK.

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Examining the Anxiety and Internet Addiction Levels of Divorced and Married Individuals

Besra Taş
Pages: 223-234

This study aims to examine the anxiety and internet addiction levels of divorced and married individuals. In this study, a statistically significant difference was found between the anxiety and internet addiction levels of married and divorced individuals, where the divorced persons had higher levels of anxiety and internet addiction than the married ones. No statistically significant difference was found between the anxiety and internet addiction levels of divorced and married individuals by gender. However, a statistically significant difference was determined between the anxiety levels of married individuals with respect to gender, where the females had higher anxiety levels than the males. In addition, no statistically significant difference was found between the anxiety and internet addiction levels of divorced individuals with respect to status of having children, whereas the level of internet addiction in married individuals varied statistically significantly according to this variable. It was noteworthy that individuals without children had significantly higher levels of internet addiction than those with children.

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A Scale Development Study: Scientist Image, Gender of the Scientist and Risks of being Scientist

Sedat Karaçam Şahin Danişman Volkan Bilir Azize Digilli Baran
Pages: 235-256

The aim of this study is to develop a scale to determine the scientist image of high school students and their perceptions of scientist’s gender and the risks they have. Descriptive survey model, one of the quantitative research techniques, was used in the study. 760 10th grade students participated in the study. The study was conducted in the spring semester of 2018-2019 academic year. In data collection, item pools were created for the following draft scales developed by researches: (1) “Scientist in Images Scale (ImSca)” to determine students' images of scientists, (2) “Scale for the Perception of Scientist’s Gender (GenSca)” to determine students' perceptions of scientist’s gender; and (3) “Scale for the Perception of the Risks that Scientist has (RiskSca)” to determine students' perceptions about the risks that scientists have. The construct validity of the scales was determined by using exploratory factor analysis on the data obtained from the scales and reliability of the scales was determined through internal consistency coefficients. As a result of the data analysis, the following structures were formed: ImSca has a 26-item structure with 8 factors, GenSca has a 23-item structure with 3 factors, and RiskSca has a 27-item structure with 6 factors. According to the results of confirmatory factor analyses, the structure of all three scales formed within the scope of the study was confirmed.

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