Volume 7 - Issue 2

May 2020

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Competence of Low-High Academic Control Focus and Its Place in Academic Success

Şükrü Ada
Pages: 1-9

The main purpose of the study is the role of internal and external academic control focus on the success of prospective teachers. The study, which was designed to determine the role of academic control focus in general academic success (GPA) and competence, was carried out with 180 pre-service teachers, 44 of which are male and 136 are female. In order to make the focus of internal and external academic control categorically low and high, the median values are divided into two, and low and high internal and external academic control focus groups are obtained. Correlation analysis to examine the relationship between variables, t-test to determine whether GPA and competency variables differ from low and high internal and external academic control focus groups, to determine whether the t-test, GPA and competency variables predict low and high internal and external academic control focus groups. Binomial Logistic Regression analysis was performed. As a result of the analysis, it is seen that the external academic control focus has a negative relationship with GPA and competence, and the internal academic control focus has a positive relation with competence. According to the results of the T test, GPA and competency were higher in the external academic control focus groups, while competence was higher in the internal academic control focus group. According to the results of the Binomial Logistic Regression analysis, it was seen that competence predicted both internal (towards high group) and external (towards low group) academic control focus, while GPA did not predict both internal and external academic control focus groups. It is seen that being in the low and high internal and external academic control focus group in the research results, the pre-service teachers differed in their belief in success and their academic success.

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The Validity and Reliability Study of Therapeutic Alliance Scale: Psychological Counselor Version

Mehmet Kandemir
Pages: 10-20

This study aimed to design a measurement tool for measuring the therapeutic alliance skills of the experts providing psychological counseling services. For the preliminary validity and reliability study of the Therapeutic Alliance Scale, 224 people working as psychological counselors were reached. After the preparation of the data for analysis and establishing the hypotheses, exploratory factor analysis was conducted in the study. As a result of the analysis, the Kaise-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value was found as 0.90, and the Barlett test was determined as χ2 = 1343.61 (p <.00). The scale was found to have a three-factor structure as a result of the exploratory factor analysis and varimax rotation techniques carried out. In the factor analysis conducted to determine the construct validity of the therapeutic alliance scale, which could measure the three-factor dimension. For reliability, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficients were analyzed, and as a result, the coefficients for the first, second, and third factors were found as .86, .87, and .68, respectively. After that, first and second level confirmatory factor analysis were done. As a result of the first analysis, the values were found as Chi-Square/Degree of Freedom (563, 114 / 167) = 3.72 and RMSEA= .08. Also, the fit coefficients obtained for the tested model were CFI = .91, GFI = .91, IFI = .90, NFI = .89, and TLI = .91. Similar results were obtained in the second level confirmatory factor analysis.

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Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers’ Concept Definitions and Examples Regarding Sets

Muhammet Doruk Alper Çiltaş
Pages: 21-36

The purpose of this study is to reveal the concept definitions and examples of pre-service elementary mathematics teachers regarding sets. In this context, students’ formal definitions, personal definitions and examples in sets were investigated. Concept of equal sets, subsets, union, intersection, compliment, and difference were considered as basic concepts of sets in this study. The participants of the study consisted of 79 freshmen studying in the department of elementary mathematics teacher training at a state university of Turkey. The study adopted qualitative research approach and is a sample of a case study. The data of the study was collected from DKFS form and unstructured interviews. The results of the study indicated that most of the pre-service teachers had difficulty in giving notational definitions and daily-life examples while they gave successfully verbal definitions of the basic concepts in sets. It was revealed that verbal definitions, notational, prototype examples with schema, symbols and operational properties were parts of some pre-service teachers’ concept images. Furthermore, some pre-service teachers confused equal sets with equivalent sets and difference with symmetric difference. They also did not consider the universal set in defining the compliment. It was found that most of the pre-service teachers had difficulty in expressing their thoughts using mathematical language throughout the study.

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Experiences of Turkish preschool teachers for including children with autism spectrum disorders: Challenges faced and methods used

Yeşim Güleç-Aslan
Pages: 37-49

Inclusion is important for development of social-communication and all skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their participation in social life. In order to carry out a successful inclusion process, preschool teachers have crucial and fundemantal role. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the experiences of eight preschool teachers in Turkey. In other words, challenges faced by preschool teachers and methods used were explored. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed via inductive analysis. The findings show that the teachers experience various difficulties and use various methods, though limited, to handle these difficulties. It is expected that this research will shed light on the current practice and inspire advanced research studies. Moreover, it is predicted that research carried out in different cultures can offer cultural perspectives to the international literature.

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Analysis And Improvement Of Prospective Teachers’ Educational Facebook Use and Development A Model For Educational Purposes

Onur İşbulan Mübin Kıyıcı
Pages: 50-71

Within the scope of this research, prospective teachers’ opinions on Facebook use for educational purposes was examined, and a modeling study was conducted in accordance with these views. In this study in which mixed method research patterns were used as research model, opinions were taken from 462 prospective teachers with a view to develop Acceptance of Facebook Use for Educational Purposes Scale and Acceptance of Facebook Use for Educational Purposes Model; scale development and model development studies were completed. With Facebook Use for Educational Purposes Activity in accordance with the developed model, level of acceptance of Facebook use for educational purposes among prospective teachers was analyzed. Pilot application of Facebook use for educational purposes activities was carried out with 76 students, and its application was carried out with 67 students; at the end of application, interviews were made with 17 students through semi-structured interview form. At the end of the study, Acceptance of Facebook Use for Educational Purposes Model was created based on Technology Acceptance Model 2, and through the educational purpose Facebook activity, a significant increase was achieved in prospective teachers’ level of acceptance to Facebook use for educational purposes.

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Relational Humor and Marital Satisfaction in Married Individuals

Begum Satıcı M. Engin Deniz
Pages: 72-78

This study investigated whether married individuals’ relational humor styles were significant predictors of their marital satisfaction levels. The study was conducted with a total of 228 married participants (139 women and 89 men). The duration of marriage of the participants ranged from 1 to 46 years (M = 9.34, SD = 10.37). The data were obtained by using the Marital Life Scale and Relational Humor Inventory. The data were tested with multiple regression analysis supported by bootstrapping process. According to the regression results, self-positive and self-negative relational humor styles significantly predicted their own marital satisfaction. On the other hand self-instrumental humor did not predict marital satisfaction significantly. Otherwise, marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by partner-positive, partner-negative, and partner-instrumental humor styles. The findings obtained in the study were discussed in accordance with the related literature and suggestions were made for the following studies

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Investigation of the Emotional Intelligence Levels of University Students Working Voluntarily in Special Olympics

Okan Burçak Çelik
Pages: 79-84

The aim of this study was to investigate of the emotional intelligence levels of university students working voluntarily in Special Olympics. The research was designed with a descriptive survey model, one of the quantitative research methods. A total of 256 university students participated in the study. 135 students voluntarily worked in Special Olympic. 121 students didn’t serve in Special Olympic. The emotional Intelligence Scale developed by Chan (2004) and used as Turkish by Aslan and Özata (2008) was employed as a data collection tool in the study. It was determined that the research data showed normal distribution. Then, it was decided that the parametric test was used. Independent samples T-test was preferred to compare the emotional intelligence levels of working voluntarily and non-working students in Special Olympics. Likewise, a t-test was used to investigate the emotional intelligence of volunteers according to gender. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that the scores of working voluntarily students were statistically higher in the emotional appraisal, positive regulation, empathic sensitivity, positive utilization sub-dimensions and general emotional intelligence scores than the non-working students in the organization. But, according to the gender variable, there was no statistically significant difference between the participants in both sub-dimensions and the whole scale. According to these results, it can be said that emotional intelligence levels of individuals who serve voluntarily in organizations for disabled people, like Special Olympics, were higher. Moreover, it can be deduced that there is no difference according to gender in the emotional intelligence levels of the participants working voluntarily in Special Olympics.

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Traumatic Experiences and Collectivist Coping Styles of University Students in Turkey

Fatma ALTUN
Pages: 85-97

Several taxonomies have been suggested to classsify coping styles, yet collectivist and individualist are the two fundamental types currently being adopted in research on coping styles. In this respect, the main purpose of this study was to examine the collectivist coping styles of university students who have traumatic life experiences. The sample of the study consisted of 508 (Female=333, Male=161, Unspecified=14) undergraduate students in Turkey. The findings of the study revealed that the most frequently experienced traumatic life events were “death/illness of a loved one”, “breakup with significant others”, “unwanted sexual activity/coercion/sexual assault” and “academic pressure/suspension of school”, respectively. One striking finding of the study was that 65.6% of the participants experienced only one traumatic event, 16.1% had two incidents, 10.6% had three and 7.7% had four or more traumatic events. Another noteworthy finding of the the study revealed that “Family Support” and “Religion and Spirituality” styles were referred with the lowest frequency in traumatic events of sexual content; however, these two styles were highly preferred and effective in traumatic events such as natural disaster, death of a loved one, and personal illness. It was further found that women experienced significantly more traumatic events involving sexual and physical violence, whereas men experienced major accident, natural disaster, or witness to an injury of another person or physical violence. It was found that women who had traumatic experience used “Religion and Spirituality” dimension significantly more than men. The results revealed that collectivist coping styles are widely used among Turkish university students and that the preferred coping style differs depending on gender and the traumatic situation.

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The Determinants of Social Anxiety in Lower Secondary Education Student Athletes: A Case of Competitive Swimming Environment

Funda Coşkun Özyol
Pages: 98-110

Social anxiety disorder is a common psychological problem that may negatively impact the cognitive and social development of children. Its severity may, however, be reduced through regular participation in sports or other physical activity. This study aimed to determine the relationship between competitive student-athlete swimmers' social anxiety levels and anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and BMI), body composition (body fat and lean body mass), and body type (ectomorph, endomorph, or mesomorph). The participants were pre-adolescent female (n = 160) and male (n = 146) lower secondary education student-athlete swimmers. The Social Anxiety Scale was used to evaluate their social anxiety levels, while the anthropometric parameters included height and weight, from which BMI was calculated. Body composition involved determining the percentage of body fat and lean body mass; ectomorphic, endomorphic, and mesomorphic values were then calculated. We found that the social anxiety levels of both female and male student-athlete swimmers were low. There was no statistically significant relationship between the social anxiety levels of the male and female student-athlete swimmers with BMI (rs = -.002), lean body mass (rs = -.017), or ectomorphy (rs = -.006) (p > .05 for all). For the female swimmers, social anxiety levels were not associated with body fat (rs = .116), endomorphy (rs = .067), or mesomorphy (rs = .032), nor were those of the male student-athlete swimmers (rs = .005, rs= .065, and rs= -.001, respectively) (p > .05 for all). These findings suggest that participation in competitive swimming during adolescence is effective in controlling social anxiety. Furthermore, this study revealed that social anxiety is not associated with lower secondary education student-athlete swimmers’ anthropometric measurements, body composition, or body type.

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A validity and reliability study of the Basic STEM Skill Levels Perception Scale

Özgen Korkmaz Recep Çakır Feray Uğur Erdoğmuş
Pages: 111-121

The aim of this study is to develop a perception scale related to the possible basic skills that can be gained through STEM. Participants of this study were 723 university students. In this study, descriptive survey study was conducted. To identify validity of the scale exploratory factor analysis, cumulative item factor, corrected correlations and item discrimination were calculated. For reliability internal consistency and stability level were calculated. Collected data were analyzed in terms of arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t and ANOVA. The scale is a 7-point likert-type scale which consists of 43 items under 3 factors. Data analysis results showed that this scale is valid and reliable for measuring students’ STEM skills according to their perceptions.

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“Know-How” to Spend Time in Home Isolation during COVID-19; Restrictions and Recreational Activities

Pınar GÜZEL Kadir YILDIZ Melike ESENTAŞ Devrim Zerengök
Pages: 122-131

This study aims at identifying the emotional, physical, psychological and social states of individuals who had to stay home for a while due to the measures taken to prevent the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic, and to determine what kind of recreational activities they preferred during this period. We used mixed research method and composed the study group of 479 consisting 297 female and 182 male participants with non-random, convenience sampling method. Data was collected through questionnaires of open-ended qualitative questions. Findings addresses that recreational activities during long home stay in a pandemic have psychological, socio-cultural and physical benefits. Social isolation during such circumstances is known to be limiting the physical mobility of individuals and it did so in this Covid-19 pandemic process. While the main activity source was of technology of the people attended this research, we also observed that they are aware of the variety and the benefits of recreational activities at the same time. The respondents stated that the coronavirus outbreak had negative effects in terms of economical, social, psychological and physiological contexts, but with the outbreak; staying in social isolation had also positive effects on their family such as exploring new things together, happiness and spending time effectively. One other remarkable aspect is that respondents reported that they would do recreational activities soon after the social isolation period ends. In the results of the research, it is suggested that it is necessary to resort to recreational activities in order to both reduce the spreading effect of the virus in isolation at home and to overcome this process with the least negative impact, and individual and institutional efforts should be made for this.

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Interpretations of the 5 th grade (ages 10-11) Turkish students’ historical knowledge based on historical sources

Ayten Kiriş Avaroğulları
Pages: 132-141

This study aims to determine the ways how the 5th grade (ages 10-11) students interpret historical knowledge based on historical sources. To study this student were given a worksheet containing historical sources and an open-ended question based on the historical sources. The data of this study is collected through one of the answers provided to the question by 150 students in elementary school. The data has been categorized under themes which have been created after study of students answers and related literature. The analysis of data demonstrate that pupils can interpret historical knowledge in the sources. Also it has been found that most of the pupils were able to synthesis their prior knowledge and information in the historical sources presented to them and were able reach personal conclusion. Yet some of the students tend to copy the information as is written on the historical source or respond emotionally. This study supports the idea that 5th grade (ages 10-11) students can read historical written sources and acquire historical information. Also this study gives information to social studies teachers on what consider when they prepare historical task for elementary school. Keywords Teaching history, social studies education, elementary school students, primary sources, historical reading

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Investigation of the Relationship between Cognitive Flexibility Levels and Personal Features of University Students

Seda TÜFEKÇİBAŞI Mustafa ŞAHİN
Pages: 142-151

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cognitive flexibility levels and personality traits of university students and whether these variables differ according to gender, education department, cigarette and alcohol use. The research was carried out with 151 students studying in the English language education, physical education and sports, science education, public relations and advertising departments of Karadeniz Technical University. "Cognitive Flexibility Scale" was used to measure the level of cognitive flexibility, "Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Form" to measure personality characteristics and "Personal Information Form" created by the researcher was used for personal information. Independent Sample T-Test, One Way Variance Analysis (ANOVA) and Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used in the analysis of the data. The analyses were carried out in SPSS 22.0 program. The results of the research showed that there was a negative relationship between cognitive flexibility and neuroticism and a positive relationship between cognitive flexibility and extraversion. According to another result only estraversion scores differ by gender. Women's extraversion scores were higher than men's scores. The variables don't differ according to the education department. Cognitive flexibility and psychoticism scores differ between smokers and non-smokers. In addition neuroticism and psychoticism scores differ between individuals who consume alcohol and do not consume alcohol. The findings were discussed based on the literature and suggestions for future research were presented.

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Does Psychological Maladjustment Mediate the Relationship Between Students’ Perception of Teacher Rejection and Educational Stress?

Behire Kuyumcu
Pages: 152-164

This study examined the mediating role of psychological maladjustment in the relationship between Turkish high school students’ perception of teacher rejection and educational stress levels. The study was based on a sample of 399 high school students located in Turkey (231 students were female; 168 students were male). The Teacher’s Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire: Child Version Short Form, the Personality Assessment Questionnaire: Child Version, Education Stress Scale, and Personal Information Form were used as measures. Result revealed that psychological maladjustment mediated the relationship between perception of teacher rejection and educational stress. Additionally, the results showed that female students’ educational stress levels, psychological maladjustment levels, and GPAs were significantly higher than male students. However, male students’ perception of teacher rejection levels was significantly higher than female students. Results also documented that younger female and male students tended to recall more educational stress than older female and male students. GPA was significantly and negatively correlated with psychological maladjustment for males. The results may help the expansion of the IPARTheory. At the practical level, school counselors may include individual or group counseling practices to increase students' psychological adjustment in intervention programs to prevent or eliminate educational stress.

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Middle School Students’ Epistemological Beliefs: Development of A Scale Based on Vignettes and Scenarios

Servet Üztemur
Pages: 165-176

This study aims to develop a scale based on vignettes and scenarios to determine the epistemological beliefs of middle school students. The study group of this cross-sectional study is investigated by random sampling and consists of 257 middle school students studying in Yunusemre and Şehzadeler districts of Manisa province in western Turkey in the 2019-2020 academic year. For construct validity, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed respectively. The research findings revealed that the scale, which accounts for 56% of the total variance, consisted of 25 items and five dimensions. In line with reliability calculations, the alpha internal consistency coefficients for innate ability, quick learning, omniscient authority, simple knowledge, and certain knowledge dimensions were respectively calculated as .83, .77, .77, .71, and .64. The research results showed that scenarios based on vignettes support the multi-dimensional structure of epistemological beliefs. Several suggestions were also made regarding the use of vignette-based scenarios as a novel approach in identifying the epistemological beliefs of middle school students.

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Investigation of the personality, anger and anxiety situation of the professional and amateur football players and the veteran footballers

Rahmi Giritlioğlu Mustafa Said Erzeybek
Pages: 177-184

The aim of this study is to investigate the anger, personality and anxiety levels of the football players who actively play football and the football players who have left football. A total 496 football players, 162 women and 334 men, participated in the research in Istanbul in 2018. Spielberger's Anger Style scale, the Eysenck Personality Inventory short form, and Spielberger's continuous anxiety inventory were used as data collection tools. The percentage distribution and frequency values of the athletes participating in the research were determined with descriptive statistics and Shapiro Wilk test was applied as the normality test. Depending on the athletes’ situation, Mann Whitney U test was performed to compare the anger, personality and anxiety levels of the athletes. Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the anger, personality and anxiety levels of the athletes depending on the level of the athlete, and Tamhane was used as the second level test to identify meaningful groups. Sperman correlation test was used to determine the relationship between the anger, personality and anxiety levels of the athletes. All the tests performed were done at α = 0.05 significance level. Microsoft Excell 2017 for Windows was used to enter the data into the computer environment and SPSS 25 package program was used to create graphics and tables. As a result of the findings obtained from the study, it was observed that there were significant differences between anger and inward anger scores according to the athletes' status, and anger, personality and trait anxiety dimensions according to the level of athletics. On the other hand, it was seen that there was a significant relationship between anger, personality and trait anxiety levels of the athletes participating in the research. As a result, it was determined that normal athletes were angrier than veteran athletes, and professional footballers had better level of anger controls and anger levels than amateur athletes. On the other hand, it has been determined that the personality and anxiety levels of professional athletes are higher than amateur athletes.

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Special Education Candidate Teachers’ Metaphors about Social Media

Hakkı BAĞCI Özlem ASLAN BAĞCI
Pages: 185-194

Because technology is developing each day and internet is getting easier to access, the types of communication among the people also have a constant alteration. Social media being one of the leads, especially the students undergoing an education frequently use these new communication styles. Studies in this context suggest that students do not use social media only to communicate with each other but also to exchange information, cooperate and share their class materials. In this regard, the perspectives of those who will be teaching students with special needs regarding social media are important to focus on. Therefore, this inquiry aims to identify the approaches of special education candidate teachers about social media courses through metaphors. The phenomenological research design was applied in this study. Participants were chosen from the candidate teachers who studied Special Education Teaching at Sakarya University Education Faculty in 2017 and 2018. The data was collected through the forms which had expressions as “because it is … social media is like … “and content analysis was used to examine this data. The forms were filled by 87 participants and the results show that they have developed 81 different metaphors. Based on the reasons for these metaphors researchers formed 6 categories: life colour, side effect, object, dependency, necessity and waste of time. It was also observed that the perspectives of special education candidate teachers about social media courses were typically positive.

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The Relationship between Social Justice Leadership and Sense of School Belonging

Suzan CANLI
Pages: 195-210

This research aims to examine the correlation between students’ sense of school belonging and social justice leadership behaviours of school principals. This research is conducted in correlational survey model. Research data are collected by “Students’ Sense of School Belonging Scale” and “Social Justice Leadership Scale”. Data social obtained from scales, which were applied on 510 high school students, are analysed in the research. In the research, it is determined that students’ sense of school belonging is at moderate level and that school principals exhibit social leadership behaviours in moderate level. No significant difference is determined in students’ sense of school belonging in terms of the sex of students, socio-economical level of school and grade level of students. While I did not find any significant difference in terms of socio-economical level of the school in terms of the way that students’ perceive the social justice leadership behaviours of school principals, I detected a significant difference in terms of the sex of students and grade levels. I detected a positive significant correlation of moderate level between the way that students’ perceive the social justice leadership behaviours of school principals and students’ sense of school belonging. I determined that the way that students’ perceive the social justice leadership behaviours of school principals predict their sense of school belonging and that it clarifies 17% of the variance related with their sense of school belonging.

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Gender Differences in Academic Motivation: A Meta-Analysis

Nihan Sölpük Turhan
Pages: 211-224

The purpose of this study is to carry out a meta-analysis study on the results of the studies on the effect of gender on academic motivation in Turkey between 2004 and 2019. For this purpose, this study aims to present a comprehensive study in which the results of the studies on this matter were combined and extended by using meta-analysis method. The study contains the gender comparison by the size value of its effect on academic motivation and the sub-group analyses. In addition, meta-analysis study was made on the effect of gender on sub-dimensions of the academic motivation in the studies that were made by using the scale “Academic Motivation Scale” developed by (Bozanoğlu, 2004). First of all, relevant studies were pooled in the meta-analysis study; then, 22 studies that comply with the research criteria were included in the analysis based on the total of academic motivation scale. The analysis based on the total point of academic motivation scale in the study contains 8010 students. 8 studies on the effect of gender on the sub-dimensions of academic motivation were included in the analysis. The analysis based on the sub-dimensions of academic motivation contains 3017 students. According to study findings, random effects model demonstrates that the effect of gender on the sub-dimensions of academic motivation is at low significance level (Cohen d value -0.07). In this study, analog ANOVA was employed for sub-group analysis by publication type and sample group of the research subject. Therefore, the sample group of the research subject differed by variance (Qb = 5.96, df= 2, p<.05). The effect of gender on exploration dimension (Cohen d value -0.12), self-transcendence dimension (Cohen d value -0.08), and dimension of using knowledge (Cohen d value -0.18) which are the sub-dimensions of academic motivation is at low significance level.

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Examination of the Curriculum Knowledge Levels of Pre-Service Teachers in Terms of Different Variables

E.Seda KOÇ
Pages: 225-240

The teaching profession is an area of expertise that combines many professional and academic competences. While all of these competences are important for the quality of learning-teaching processes, the curriculum and content knowledge that teachers are expected to have is one of the main characteristics that are directly determinative in achieving the learning objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the pre-service teachers' knowledge of curriculum in terms of different variables. The study group of the study, which was conducted according to the descriptive research model, consisted of 237 students in the 4th grade of the faculty in 2018-2019 academic year. In the study, the pre-service teachers' general curriculum knowledge, the average points they received from curriculum development questions and the average points they received only from the questions related to the curriculum in their field of study were handled. As a result of the findings, it was seen that pre-service teachers' curriculum knowledge their field showed a significant difference in favor of female teacher candidates. Also, it was observed that the average of all three points of pre-service teachers differed significantly according to their branches and general curriculum knowledge differed significantly according to their branches.

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We would like to inform you that 2nd issue of the 7th volume of The International Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies (IJPES) has been published. This journal serves as a platform for

presenting and discussing the emerging issues on psychology and education for readers. In this issue, IJPES published has 20 articles. Many thanks to all contributors. We also cordially invite you to read

are 2nd issue of 2020 IJPES. International Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies (IJPES) is an international, peer-reviewed, non-profit, professional scientific journal. IJPES is a journal that accepts

manuscripts related to psychology and educational sciences. The journal is published online three times in a year. The article being submitted should be written in English. IJPES publishes research

employing a variety of qualitative and/or quantitative methods and approaches in all areas of the education field and psychology. IJPES welcomes articles from different institutions and countries.

IJPES is supported by Educational Researches and Publications Association (ERPA).